1Centers for Diseases – Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010,, accessed on 23 Mar 2018.

2American Sexual Health Association-Statistics –, accessed 11 Jan 2018

3Walboomers et al. Human papillomavirus is a necessary cause of invasive cervical cancer worldwide. J Pathol. 1999;189(1)12-9

4Aref-Adib et al. Cervical cancer prevention and screening: the role of human papillomavirus testing. The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist. 2016;18:251

5Genital HPV Infection – CDC Fact Sheet July 2017,, 1 Feb 2018

6American Cancer Society – HPV and Cancer,, accessed 12  Jan 2018

7Alemany L et al. Human papillomavirus DNA prevalence and type distribution in anal carcinomas worldwide. Int J Cancer. 2015;136(1):99-103

8de Sanjose S et al. Worldwide human papillomavirus genotype attribution in over 2000 cases of intraepithelial and invasive lesions of the vulva. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49(16):3455

9Alemany L et al. Large contribution of human papillomavirus in vaginal neoplastic lesions: a worldwide study in 597 samples. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50(16):2849 – 2851

10Garland SM, Steben M, Sings HL, et al. Natural history of genital warts: analysis of the placebo arm of 2 randomized phase III trials of a quadrivalent HPV (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(6):808-810.

11National Registry of Disease Office – Singapore Cancer Registry Annual Registry Report 2015

12American Cancer Society, Cervical Cancer Prevention and Early Detection, 2014., accessed 1 Feb 2018.

13Health Hub – Breast & Cervical Cancer Screening Subsidies.–cervical-cancer-screening-subsidies

14Chan PKS et al. Distribution of human papillomavirus types in anogenital warts of men. J Clin Virol. 2009; 44(2):112